The water-wall Plasma-arc Lamp (PAL) was developed at the University of British Columbia where a key innovation was to protect the quartz tube, which contains the plasma arc, from overheating by the 12,000 °C plasma temperature with a layer of water flowing in a spiral on the inside surface of the tube. PAL systems are currently designed and fabricated by Mattson Technologies, Inc., mainly for...
Optical and electron microscopy Hi-temp x-ray, synchrotron, and neutron diffraction Scanning probe microscopy
X-ray Synchrotron Scanning electron Neutron diffraction
Macro- and micro-stresses in two-phase mixtures XRD, synchrotron, and neutron diffraction Raman microscope measurements