For fundamental investigations of the structure and dynamics of materials using X-ray diffraction, including pioneering nanosecond resolution X-ray studies and the development of three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicron resolution.
For distinguished research on the air/surface exchange of atmospheric trace gases and particles and their interactions with the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, and for pioneering developments in atmospheric sampling methodologies with special emphasis on the global mercury cycle.
For pioneering research in ecosystem theory, ecological modeling, error analysis, hierarchy theory, and landscape ecology and for the development of basic applications in risk assessment and regional environmental analysis.
For significant advancement of welding science and technology through original and definitive research, particularly for contributions to understanding the solidification behavior of the weld pool, phase stability microstructure-property correlations in welds, and continued leadership and outstanding service to the national and international welding research community.
For pioneering work on energy conservation, including development of energy demand models, data bases, and analyses of energy use trends, which has contributed to federal and state energy policies and programs and to demand-side planning by electric utilities.
For theoretical research on the electronic and vibronic structures and optical properties of defects in ionic crystals, and for work at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of laser annealing of semiconductors, leading to advances in the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy.