Heterogeneities in Quantum Materials
Studies the effects of compositional and structural heterogeneities on quantum behaviors of fundamental energy carriers and seeks to reveal quantum interactions at the heterogeneities.
The overarching goal of this theme is to understand the roles of heterogeneities in defining and affecting coherence and entanglement of quantum states to enable new materials for applications in energy and quantum information sciences. This goal is achieved by revealing the atomistic-level understanding of structure-property relationships in quantum materials that occur at structural and compositional heterogeneities such as defects, interfaces, and disorder. This understanding includes the interactions between electronic, magnetic, photonic, and vibrational states of heterogeneities that render coherent and entangled quantum states necessary to enable the design of new generations of quantum materials, including topological matter (such as topological insulators, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, and quantum spin liquids) and quantum light emitters based on heterogenous two-dimensional (2D) materials. The research of effective ways of connecting the heterogeneity of structures to the quantum behaviors of real materials will allow us to develop unique capabilities for scientific community, so that heterogeneities can be rationally controlled to create desirable quantum states and interactions of various energy states, and thus to enable a quantum leap in materials research. Heterogeneities in quantum materials will be studied through the execution of 3 aims:
- Reveal the Structure of Heterogeneities: new approaches to reveal the structural, electronic, magnetic, vibrational, and optical degrees of freedom of heterogeneities.
- Understand the Effect of Heterogeneities: correlations of coherence and entanglement of quantum states with the heterogeneities.
- Control Heterogeneities Toward Tailored Interactions between Energy Carriers: energy conversion and quantum information science principles relevant to future applications.
This research theme builds directly on expertise in atomic level control and understanding of materials, including the characterization of heterogeneities in low-dimensional (LD) materials, through innovative development and utilization of scanning probe and electron microscopy and spectroscopy (such as spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic-resolution 4-probe STM, monochromated, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), low-frequency Raman and ultra-fast laser spectroscopy) combined with first-principles calculations. These aims motivate key directions to other CNMS Themes, “Directed Nanoscale Transformations” and “Hierarchical Assembly”, driving the development of materials and heterostructures with precisely controlled defects and interfaces in order to test theoretical predictions relating atomistic structure with function. These aims also provide information on electronic behavior to understand “Hysteretic Nanomaterials” where defects and interfaces play a key role. With this assistance, the Heterogeneities in Quantum Materials (HQM) theme will extend beyond our current understanding of “ideal” materials and provide the critical knowledge needed to control the coupling of electron, spin, and photon interactions in materials to create the designer quantum states that will be the foundations of quantum information science.