Structural studies of wormlike micelles have so far mostly focused on the conformational properties of surfactant aggregates. The diffuse ionic atmosphere, which has a profound influence on various micellization phenomena such as thermodynamic stability and structural polymorphism, remains largely unexplored experimentally. In this report a strategy of contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering for this crucial structural study is outlined. Underlined by a general criterion established for unbiasedly identifying the length scale relevant to charge association from the spectral evolution, our analytical framework can provide a quantitative description of counterion distribution in a mathematically tractable manner. Our method can be conveniently extended to facilitate structural studies of complex multicomponent systems using contrast variation neutron scattering.