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Adsorption-controlled growth of MnTe(Bi2Te3)n by molecular beam epitaxy exhibiting stoichiometry-controlled magnetism

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Physical Review Materials
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Abstract: We report the growth of the intrinsic magnetic topological system MnTe(Bi2Te3)n by molecular beam epitaxy. By mapping the temperature and the Bi:Mn flux ratio, it is shown that there is a narrow growth window for the n=1 phase MnBi2Te4 with 2.0<Bi:Mn<2.6 at 225 °C. Here the films are stoichiometric and excess Bi and Te is not incorporated. At higher flux ratios (Bi:Mn≥4.5) it is found that the n = 2 MnBi4Te7 phase is stabilized. Transport measurements indicate that the MnBi2Te4 and MnBi4Te7 undergo magnetic transitions around 25 K, and 10 K, respectively, consistent with antiferromagnetic phases found in the bulk. Further, for Mn-rich conditions (Bi:Mn<2), ferromagnetism emerges that exhibits a clear hysteretic state in the Hall effect, which likely indicates Mn-doped MnBi2Te4. Understanding how to grow ternary chalcogenide phases is the key to synthesizing new materials and to interface magnetism and topology, which together are routes to realize and control exotic quantum phenomena.