For environmental-effects research related to energy technologies and their use, focusing on the impacts of climate and atmospheric changes on the physiology, growth, and biogeochemical cycles of North American forest ecosystems.
For pioneering research and development of new materials for advanced energy technologies, including materials for (a) the storage of nuclear waste, (b) the solid-state generation of electrical power directly from heat, and (c) the lossless transport of electricity.
For fundamental investigations of the structure and dynamics of materials using X-ray diffraction, including pioneering nanosecond resolution X-ray studies and the development of three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicron resolution.
For outstanding contributions to the field of applied computer vision research and development that address important national interests in industrial and economic competitiveness, biomedical measurement science, and national security.
For applying molecular beam techniques to study chemically reactive collisions, helping to lay the foundation for the present field of chemical dynamics, and for pioneering studies in accelerator-based atomic physics, ion-solid interactions, and the channeling of ions, electrons and positrons in crystalline solids.
For fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical solid-state physics that directly relate to experimental programs, including the electronic structure and magnetism of transition and rare-earth metals, metal-electrolyte interfaces, superconductivity, and physical properties of heavy fermion, mixed valent, and fractal materials
For discoveries of fundamental importance in mammalian genetics, as well as for studies of genetic and developmental effects in mice, which have provided a broad basis for assessment of the genetic risk to humans from radiation and chemicals, including the development of genetic and early developmental tests now used worldwide.
For contributions to advanced control systems for nuclear reactor, including development of control-system and plant protection technologies that permit automated start-up and operation; and to analysis techniques that have led to better understanding of reactor dynamics.