For forefront studies of the fundamental science of actinide elements, through mendelevium, which employ novel experimental techniques, make systematic comparisons, and emphasize the role of the elements' electronic configurations.
For basic studies in the fracture of and toughening mechanisms in ceramics and ceramic composites, in the establishment of the relationships between microstructure and composition and mechanical behavior, and in the development of advanced ceramic materials.
For ideas and techniques which have opened new frontiers in chemical research and now play major roles in the study, understanding, and use of photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy in studies of "hot atom" chemistry and work with multiply charged molecular ions.
Mazur, who led the Theoretical and Applied Cryobiology Group in the Biology Division, concentrated his research on fundamental mechanisms responsible for injury to cells during freezing and warming. This research and other basic findings were described in his review paper "Freezing of Living Cells: Mechanisms and Implications."
For contributions to the development of new concepts and advanced systems for power generation and conversion, through innovative designs of nuclear reactors for aircraft propulsion and space auxiliary power and concepts for thermonuclear fusion reactor power plants
For original studies of the genetic effects of radiation in mammals. A world authority on mammalian mutagenesis, he and co-workers provided the experimental basis for estimating the genetic hazards of radiation to man and for the corresponding recommendations of national and international standards bodies