For his innovation in the production and application of medical isotopes; for advancing the separation and purification of actinides and heavy elements; and for his leadership in the use of alpha emitters to save the lives of cancer patients.
For his broad scientific contributions and international reputation in aqueous chemistry and geochemistry; for his research into the structure, dynamics, and reactions at fluid–solid interfaces; and for his leadership and service to ORNL and the international scientific community.
For pioneering research in ecosystem theory, ecological modeling, error analysis, hierarchy theory, and landscape ecology and for the development of basic applications in risk assessment and regional environmental analysis.
For distinguished research in the field of risk assessment, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models, interspecies extrapolation, and human exposure to dioxin and other background contaminants, and for significant contributions to environmental policy through pioneering investigations of the effectiveness of remediation technologies and through service on national and international advisory panels and boards
For contributions to the development of new concepts and advanced systems for power generation and conversion, through innovative designs of nuclear reactors for aircraft propulsion and space auxiliary power and concepts for thermonuclear fusion reactor power plants
For research extending the theoretical description of direct nuclear reactions and nuclear structure, as one of the first theorists to implement the much more refined and detailed treatment of experimental data made possible by computers