For internationally recognized contributions in distributed and cluster computing, including the development of the Parallel Virtual Machine and the Message Passing Interface standard now widely used in science to solve computational problems in biology, physics, chemistry, and materials science.
For forefront studies of the fundamental science of actinide elements, through mendelevium, which employ novel experimental techniques, make systematic comparisons, and emphasize the role of the elements' electronic configurations.
Greenbaum, the winner of the 1995 DOE Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Award, has done extensive experimental work in photosynthesis, the process by which green plants grow, and its application to renewable energy production.
For significant and fundamental achievements in laser-based chemical measurement techniques, such as single molecule detection in liquids, and pioneering the efforts in the development of microfabricated chemical instrumentation, including the laboratory on a chip concept.
For contributions to understanding plasma turbulence and the nonlinear properties of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, especially their role in explaining the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas, and for development of new magnetic confinement concepts that overcome these limitations.
For advances in neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry, the transport of electricity through gases, and the development of laser-based one-atom detection with applications in nuclear physics, solar neutrino research, and oceanic, geologic, and environmental research