For environmental-effects research related to energy technologies and their use, focusing on the impacts of climate and atmospheric changes on the physiology, growth, and biogeochemical cycles of North American forest ecosystems.
For pioneering research and development of new materials for advanced energy technologies, including materials for (a) the storage of nuclear waste, (b) the solid-state generation of electrical power directly from heat, and (c) the lossless transport of electricity.
For pioneering research and distinguished contributions to the field of high-temperature superconductors, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations that enable commercialization.
For fundamental investigations of the structure and dynamics of materials using X-ray diffraction, including pioneering nanosecond resolution X-ray studies and the development of three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicron resolution.
For pioneering work on energy conservation, including development of energy demand models, data bases, and analyses of energy use trends, which has contributed to federal and state energy policies and programs and to demand-side planning by electric utilities.