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Revealing the Chemical Bonding in Adatom Arrays via Machine Learning of Hyperspectral Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy Data...

Publication Type
Journal Name
ACS Nano
Publication Date
Page Numbers
11806 to 11816

The adatom arrays on surfaces offer an ideal playground to explore the mechanisms of chemical bonding via changes in the local electronic tunneling spectra. While this information is readily available in hyperspectral scanning tunneling spectroscopy data, its analysis has been considerably impeded by a lack of suitable analytical tools. Here we develop a machine learning based workflow combining supervised feature identification in the spatial domain and unsupervised clustering in the energy domain to reveal the details of structure-dependent changes of the electronic structure in adatom arrays on the Co3Sn2S2 cleaved surface. This approach, in combination with first-principles calculations, provides insight for using artificial neural networks to detect adatoms and classifies each based on their local neighborhood comprised of other adatoms. These structurally classified adatoms are further spectrally deconvolved. The unexpected inhomogeneity of electronic structures among adatoms in similar configurations is unveiled using this method, suggesting there is not a single atomic species of adatoms, but rather multiple types of adatoms on the Co3Sn2S2 surface. This is further supported by a slight contrast difference in the images (or slight size variation) of the topography of the adatoms.