As lithium-ion battery (LIB) active material and cell manufacturing costs continue to drop with wider adoption of electric vehicles, electrode and cell processing costs remain too high in terms of reaching the ultimate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cell cost target of $80/kWh. This paper primarily covers major materials chemistry advancements made over the last 10 years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the space of advanced manufacturing science for LIBs with the aim of simultaneously meeting the ultimate cost target, 500 Wh/kg gravimetric energy density, 10-15-min fast charge times, and 1000 deep discharge cycles. Aqueous electrode processing with a variety of active anode and cathode materials is now a standard procedure at the DOE Battery Manufacturing R&D Facility at ORNL (BMF), including the latest processes developed for Ni-rich cathodes. New results on cobalt-free LiNi0.8Fe0.1Al0.1O2 (NFA 811) are also included and discussed in an electrode processing advantage context. In addition, colloidal processing advancements have been made for Si/C composite anodes for achieving >600 mA h/g capacities. Optimization of electrode coating parameters and drying protocols have been completed, which has elucidated how key processing variables need to be changed when parameters such as slurry solids loading, solvent type, and wet electrode thickness are changed. ORNL has also increased the line speeds at which thick cathodes can be processed using ultra-fast electron beam (EB) curing and substantially decreased formation cycling times to <1 day. Key details of these advancements are discussed in the context of materials chemistry and process-property-performance relationships.