Metal additive manufacturing (AM) offers flexibility and cost-effectiveness for printing complex parts but is limited to few alloys. Qualifying new alloys requires process parameter optimisation to produce consistent, high-quality components. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has not been effective for this task due to artifacts, slow scan speed, and costs. We propose a deep learning-based approach for rapid XCT acquisition and reconstruction of metal AM parts, leveraging computer-aided design models and physics-based simulations of nonlinear interactions between X-ray radiation and metals. This significantly reduces beam hardening and common XCT artifacts. We demonstrate high-throughput characterisation of over a hundred AlCe alloy components, quantifying improvements in characterisation time and quality compared to high-resolution microscopy and pycnometry. Our approach facilitates investigating the impact of process parameters and their geometry dependence in metal AM.