For pioneering research and distinguished contributions to the field of high-temperature superconductors, including fundamental materials science advances and technical innovations that enable commercialization.
For fundamental investigations of the structure and dynamics of materials using X-ray diffraction, including pioneering nanosecond resolution X-ray studies and the development of three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicron resolution.
For distinguished research on the air/surface exchange of atmospheric trace gases and particles and their interactions with the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, and for pioneering developments in atmospheric sampling methodologies with special emphasis on the global mercury cycle.
For innovative and fundamental contributions to the understanding of the interactions and transport of electrons in gases and liquids, negative ion processes, the interfacing of the gaseous and condensed phases of matter, and the use of fundamental knowledge in the development of gaseous dielectrics, radiation detectors, and pulsed power
For fundamental studies in radiation physics, radiation dosimetry, and surface physics and for pioneering theoretical work on collective electron modes, surface electromagnetic waves in solids, and elucidation of the interaction of charged particles with matter.
For pioneering work on energy conservation, including development of energy demand models, data bases, and analyses of energy use trends, which has contributed to federal and state energy policies and programs and to demand-side planning by electric utilities.