ORNL Review Archive
Addressing the World's Energy Challenges
- Systems Biology: Advancing at a Breathtaking Pace : Editorial: Unraveling Life's Molecular Mysteries ... New Tools of Analysis ... First, the Questions ... Sequencing The First Tree Genome ... Pathways Underlying Disorders ... Piloting The Pipeline ... Neutron-Rich Mecca For Biologists ... A Clean Mouse Research Lab ... A Return On Investment ... Providing Access to The Best Biological Tools
- A Rich Past: Pioneer of Biological Research ... ORNL's Unsung Discovery
- Profile: Tuan Vo-Dinh: Inventor and Mentor
- Research Horizons: Guiding Light ... Another World Record
- Awards: ...and the Winners are...
Addressing the World's Energy Challenges
- Editorial: Regaining America's Leadership in High-Performance Computing ... Leadership-Class Computing for Science
- Scientific Discovery: Biology: Uncovering Secrets of Living Cells ... Climate and Carbon Research: Glimpses of Global Warming ... Fusion: Progress Through Computation ... Materials: Exploring and Modeling 21st Century Materials ... Astrophysics: Simulating Supernovae ... Chemistry: Tomorrow's Molecular and Nanoscale Devices
- Partnerships, Systems, Services, Support: Center for Computational Sciences: A Leadership-Class Facility ... Partnerships: Joining Hands to Address National Problems ... Networking: Linking America's Laboratories ... Software Tools: Scalable Systems Software for Terascale Computer Centers ... Future Computing Technologies: Pathfinders for Ultrascale Computing ... Visualization: New Ways to Understand the Data ... Industry: A Critical Connection
- Awards: ...and the Winners are...
Back To The Future: Nuclear Energy Research
- Features: Editorial ... Nuclear Power And Hydrogen Production: Fabricating Fuels ... Future Reactor Materials: Can the Next Generation Take The Heat? ... Future Reactor Materials: A Revolutionary Reactor Concept ... Uranium Enrichment: Coming Full Circle ... Nuclear Waste: Recovering Fuel From Waste ... Nuclear Safety: Staying In The Comfort Zone ... Nuclear Fuel: Getting Credit ... Reactor Power In Space: Shooting For The Moons ... Reactor Power In Space: Ahead Of Their Time
- Groundbreaking Science: New Horizons In Science Briefing ... Carrying Your Weight ... Defining The "Machines Of Life" ... Nanofluidics And The Artificial Cell ... Imitating Nature ... Tiny Detectors ... A Neutron Microscope ... Neutron Clues ... Uncovering The Evidence ... Bone Diaries ... From Exotic To Extinct ... Protein Folding Gone Awry ... Unfolding The Answers
- Profile: Jeff Wadsworth: New Director, New Directions
- Research Horizons: Cyber Science ... Modernizing The Grid ... ORNL's Impact On Big Bang Research
- Awards: And The Winners Are...
- Acid Rain and Dry Deposition of Atmospheric Pollutants: ORNL Studies the Effects. Acidic precipitation and atmospheric deposition may be involved in the decline of some forests and in the elevation of aluminum levels in streams. ORNL researchers play an important role in pinpointing the effects of atmospheric pollutants on vegetation, fish, and surface waters.
- Photosynthetic Water Splitting. Using light and algae or nonliving systems, ORNL scientists have photosynthetically split water into oxygen and hydrogen, a clean fuel and chemical feedstock.
- Simulating Processes Within the Earth: Experimental Geochemistry at ORNL. Geochemists at ORNL are using unique devices to simulate in a very short time the chemical processes that form rocks and minerals. The basic research may help solve problems affecting geothermal power, nuclear waste isolation, and exploration for ores and natural gas.
- Drinking Water and Cardiovascular Disease. An epidemiological study of Wisconsin farmers indicates that persons with cardiovascular disease drink softer water than persons without the disease.
- Environmental and Health Impacts of Water Chlorination. ORNL chemist Bob Jolley was the first to identify potentially hazardous organic compounds formed by adding chlorine to wastewater. He has also led an effort to identify drinking water compounds that cause thyroid disease.
- Groundwater Pollution: Environmental and Legal Problems. A book edited by two ORNL researchers discusses the implications of groundwater pollution caused by human discharges of synthetic chemicals. ORNL scientists' attempts to monitor and prevent deteriorative groundwater quality are explored.
- New Agents To Detect Heart Disease. ORNL's Nuclear Medicine Group has designed and developed radioactive agents for safely and more clearly evaluating heart disease and the effectiveness of therapy. These agents include iodine-123-labeled methyl-branched fatty acids. The group has also developed an improved iridium-191m generator to diagnose heart problems in children. The methyl-branched fatty acids will be tested this year in human patients in Boston and Vienna, and the generator has just entered clinical trials in Europe.
- The Advanced Toroidal Facility: Improving Fusion's Chances . Because further improvements in doughnut-shaped, or toroidal, fusion devices are desirable, ORNL has designed an Advanced Toroidol Facility (ATF). An optimized version of a stellarator (which differs from a tokamak in that it lacks a plasma current to magnetically confine the fusion fuel), the ATF will be built in Oak Ridge and is scheduled to begin operation in late 1986.
- SPECIAL SECTION: Technology for Efficient Power Systems. ORNL is managing the Department of Energy program for developing and testing technologies designed to make electric power systems safer, more reliable, and more efficient. ORNL's interdisciplinary staff of experts has taken on a variety of projects, including planning an automated distribution experiment for Athens, Tennessee, and developing a fiber optics measurement device, low-loss steel alloy, and new insulating materials for use in transformers.
- The Oak Ridge Environment: A Resource To Be Managed. A five-year plan for managing the resources of the Oak Ridge Reservation of the Department of Energy has been developed at ORNL The plan, which is described in the third in a series of articles on ORNL and the environment, deals with both natural and technical resources and provides the means for resolving resource issues such as endangered plant species, contaminated sewage sludge, and the fast-growing deer population.
- State of the Laboratory—1983 In the following updated report based on his January 31, 1984, address to staff, Herman Postma discusses technical achievements related to global environmental concerns, an improved alloy for artificial hip joints, human problems of abandoned mine lands, magnets for fusion, the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test, altering an enzyme to improve crop yields, radiation effects on matter, diagnosing heart disease in children, measuring indoor air pollution, protecting high-voltage lines, measuring fission product release from reactor fuel, new applications of lasers, and fusion plasma fueling.
- Making R&D Pay Off: How ORNL Interacts with Industry. Recently the federal government has removed impediments to the transfer of government-sponsored technology to industry. As a result, ORNL has new staff consulting and patent policies and has established a fund to promote technology transfer. Efforts also have been made by the federal government, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and ORNL to stimulate and support the creation of small businesses to help the economy.
- Communicating Health Risks to the Public. The public is worried about low-level effects of environmental agents on health. Its perception of the health risks involved, however, is often different from the actual risks. The scientific establishment, the new media, and culturally ingrained fears and expectations may well be responsible for this discrepancy. That was the consensus of a recent workshop on communicating risks.
- ORNL and the Environment: Views of State and Federal Regulations. In 1983 the State of Tennessee sought for the first time to acquire the right to regulate ORNL's discharges to the environment. Recently the state conducted a compliance evaluation inspection and recommended that ORNL take action to solve its environmental problems. In this second part of a series, the authors discuss steps that ORNL is taking to respond to the inspection report and the legal issues pertaining to environmental management at the Laboratory.
- How Does ORNL Affect the Environment? ORNL's day-to-day operations for the most part have a beneficial effect on the human environment, although the impacts of its primary product—new scientific and technological information—are speculative. Slightly adverse impacts arise from releases of toxic materials from research activities; however, none of these releases is a threat to human health.
- Building a Better Ion Trap: Atomic Physicists Study Recoil Ions. A new technique developed at ORNL under the leadership of two university professors traps ions of very low energies. This "recoil ion storage" technique permits studies of the transfer of electrons from atoms during collisions with multicharged, low-energy ions and opens the way to future precision spectroscopy experiments on ions.
- The Mathematics of Artificial Intelligence. Mathematicians at ORNL are applying the principles of artificial intelligence to energy-related problems. Their goals include designing an economical, energy-efficient solar house and programming a robot to avoid obstacles so that it can operate in a hazardous environment, such as a nuclear reprocessing plant.
- Predicting Metal-Ion Toxicity: A Collaboration of ORNL Physicists and Biologists. ORNL physicists and biologists are collaborating in a search for fundamental explanations of the toxic effects of metal ions in biological systems. Their goal is to predict the degree of toxicity of metal ions and other chemical pollutants
- Sol-Gel and Gel-Sphere Technology: Powders for Power. Sol-gel technology, developed over a 25-year period at ORNL, has been used to make spherical, beadlike particles for nuclear reactor fuels. Today industry is showing interest in the technology for making ceramics of uniform composition for electronic and other nonnuclear applications. A researcher involved in the development of the prizewinning technology tells its history.