In the coming decades, our planet will witness unprecedented urban population growth in both established and emerging communities. The development and maintenance of urban infrastructures are highly energy-intensive. Urban areas are dictated by complex intersections among physical, engineered, and human dimensions that have significant implications for traffic congestion, emissions, and energy usage. In this chapter, we highlight recent research and development efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the largest multipurpose science laboratory within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) national laboratory system, that characterizes the interactions between the human dynamics and critical infrastructures in conjunction with the integration of four distinct components: data, critical infrastructure models, and scalable computation and visualization, all within the context of physical and social systems. Discussions focus on four key topical themes: population and land use, sustainable mobility, the energy-water nexus, and urban resiliency, that are mutually aligned with DOE’s mission and ORNL’s signature science and technology capabilities. Using scalable computing, data visualization, and unique datasets from a variety of sources, the institute fosters innovative interdisciplinary research that integrates ORNL expertise in critical infrastructures including energy, water, transportation, and cyber, and their interactions with the human population.