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Impact of Primary and Secondary ZDDP and Ionic Liquid as Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance and Physicochemical Prope...

by Daekun Kim, Todd J Toops, Ke Nguyen, Michael J Lance, Jun Qu
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In the present study, two industry primary and secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate standards, ZDDP1 and ZDDP2, respectively, are evaluated for their impact on the performance of Pd-based three-way catalyst and bench-marked against two mixed lubricant additives formed from either ZDDP1 or ZDDP2 with a second-generation oil-miscible phosphoric-containing ionic liquid (IL). The three-way catalysts (TWCs) are exposed to the lubricant additives in an engine bench under four different scenarios: a base case with no additive (NA), ZDDP1, IL+ZDDP1, ZDDP2, and IL+ZDDP2. The engine-aged TWC samples are characterized through a variety of analytical techniques, including evaluation of catalyst reactivity in a bench-flow reactor. With respect to the water–gas shift reaction and the oxygen storage capacity, the ZDDP2- and IL+ZDDP2-aged TWC samples are more degraded than the ZDDP1- and IL+ZDDP1-aged TWC samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that phosphorus in the form of CePO4 was found to be present in the washcoat of all TWC samples, with the highest amount found in the ZDDP2-aged TWC sample. The results obtained from XRD are further confirmed by those from inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), which show that more phosphorus is detected in the washcoat of ZDDP2- and IL+ZDDP2-aged TWC samples than in the ZDDP1- and IL+ZDDP1-aged TWC samples.