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Impact of Boron-Containing Lubricant Additive on Three-Way Catalyst Reactivity and Physicochemical Properties

by Daekun Kim, Todd J Toops, Ke Nguyen, Michael J Lance, Jun Qu
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Boron-containing compounds are one of the lubricant additive options due to their suitable properties for additives and have been used as commercial lubricant additives. In the present study, the impact of a boron-containing lubricant oil additive, AR9100 (BR), on Pd/Rh-based three-way catalyst (TWC) performance is investigated, and the results are compared with the baseline no-additive (NA) case and the industry standard zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP) results. Accelerated engine aging is performed using a genset to expose the catalysts to lubricant additives at high temperatures. All aged TWC samples are investigated for reactivity in a bench-flow reactor and characterized using a variety of analytical techniques. Compared with the no-additive case, the temperatures of 90% conversion (T90) of NO, CO, C3H6, and C3H8 for the ZDDP-aged TWC sample increased by 34, 30, 37, and 48 °C. However, the T90 of all gas species for the BR-aged TWC sample are similar to the NA-aged TWC sample. Additionally, a significant decrease in water–gas shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity is observed in the ZDDP-aged sample, but not in the BR-aged sample. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) maps of accelerated engine aging samples show the presence of phosphorus and boron in ZDDP- and BR-aged TWC samples, respectively. However, no boron-related peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the BR-aged TWC sample, which may exist in the form of an amorphous phase.