Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, of metals is transforming the fabrication of components, in part by dramatically expanding the design space, allowing optimization of shape and topology. However, although the physical processes involved in AM are similar to those of welding, a field with decades of experimental, modeling, simulation, and characterization experience, qualification of AM parts remains a challenge. The availability of exascale computational systems, particularly when combined with data-driven approaches such as machine learning, enables topology and shape optimization as well as accelerated qualification by providing process-aware, locally accurate microstructure and mechanical property models. We describe the physics components comprising the Exascale Additive Manufacturing simulation environment and report progress using highly resolved melt pool simulations to inform part-scale finite element thermomechanics simulations, drive microstructure evolution, and determine constitutive mechanical property relationships based on those microstructures using polycrystal plasticity. We report on implementation of these components for exascale computing architectures, as well as the multi-stage simulation workflow that provides a unique high-fidelity model of process–structure–property relationships for AM parts. In addition, we discuss verification and validation through collaboration with efforts such as AM-Bench, a set of benchmark test problems under development by a team led by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.