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Evaluation of Tungsten—Steel Solid-State Bonding: Options and the Role of CALPHAD to Screen Diffusion Bonding Interlayers...

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Critical aspects of innovative design in engineering disciplines like infrastructure, transportation, and medical applications require the joining of dissimilar materials. This study investigates the literature on solid-state bonding techniques, with a particular focus on diffusion bonding, as an effective method for establishing engineering bonds. Welding and brazing, while widely used, may pose challenges when joining materials with large differences in melting temperature and can lead to mechanical property degradation. In contrast, diffusion bonding offers a lower temperature process that relies on solid-state interactions to develop bond strength. The joining of tungsten and steel, especially for fusion reactors, presents a unique challenge due to the significant disparity in melting temperatures and the propensity to form brittle intermetallics. Here, diffusion characteristics of tungsten–steel interfaces are examined and the influence of bonding parameters on mechanical properties are investigated. Additionally, CALPHAD modeling is employed to explore joining parameters, thermal stability, and diffusion kinetics. The insights from this research can be extended to join numerous dissimilar materials for specific applications such as aerospace, automobile industry, power plants, etc., enabling advanced and robust design with high efficiency.