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Distributed energy management for networked microgrids in a three-phase unbalanced distribution network

Publication Type
Journal Name
Frontiers in Energy
Publication Date
Page Numbers
1 to 16

Owing to increased penetration of three-phase and single-phase microgrids, distributed energy resources (DERs), and responsive loads, the maintenance of a three-phase balance by distribution networks is a significant challenge. Existing literature on distributed energy management for networked microgrids generally neglects the distribution network or employs a simplified phase balanced distribution network; thus, these evaluations are not applicable. Further, the underlying mutual coupling between the different phases of distribution feeders results in a more challenging situation. To solve this issue, this study sought to propose distributed energy management based on a three-phase unbalanced distribution network. Various three-phase or single-phase microgrids, utility-owned DERs, and responsive loads were coordinated through iteratively adjusted price signals. Based on the price signals received, the microgrid controllers (MCs) and distribution management system (DMS) updated the schedules of the DERs and responsive loads under their jurisdiction separately. The price signals were then updated according to the generation-load mismatch at each node and distributed to the corresponding MCs and DMS for the next iteration. The iteration continued until a sufficiently small generation-load mismatch was achieved at all nodes, that is, a balanced generation and load at all nodes under the agreed price signals. Considering a three-phase unbalanced distribution network, the price signals were determined per phase per node. Overall, the proposed distributed energy management coordinates microgrids, utility-owned DERs, responsive loads with guaranteed network constraints, and preserves the privacy of microgrid customers. This distributed energy management method was further demonstrated through various case studies on a three-phase networked microgrid test system.