This study reports on the use of sodium alginate to effectively stabilize sodium sulfate decahydrate (Na2SO4·10H2O, SSD) based phase change material (PCM) for application as a thermal energy storage material. Alginate/SSD composite PCMs were prepared by blending SSD with different concentrations of alginate polymer. The resulting composite PCMs demonstrate high phase change enthalpy ∼160 J/g and extended cycling stability compared to existing PCM composites. The analysis carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray scattering, and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations demonstrated that the stabilization effect was caused by the interplay between ionic and hydrogen bond interactions between the alginate and SSD. Additionally, the variation in mechanical properties of PCM composites with polymer concentrations made it possible to formulate a composite that maintains stable performance after 3D printing. The advanced properties make this composite a promising candidate for application as a thermal energy storage material.