An emergent direct-write approach, aerosol-jet printing (AJP), is gaining attention for the deployment of rapid and affordable microadditively manufactured energy-efficient sensors and printed electronics. AJP enables a broad range of ink viscosities (0.001–1 Pa s) for printing diverse materials ranging from ceramics and metals to polymers and biological matter. Reproducible, high-spatial-resolution features (≈10 µm), and wide standoff distances (1–11 mm) between the nozzle and the substrate facilitate conformal printing of complex geometrical designs on nonplanar—e.g., stepped or curved—surfaces. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art AJP-based sensors (e.g., strain and temperature gauges, biosensors, photosensors, humidity and surface acoustic wave sensors, dielectric elastomer actuators, and motion, smoke, and hazardous gas detectors) and to discuss prospective applications. The drive toward cost-effective devices that are smaller, lighter, and better-performing remains a frontier challenge in the field of printed electronics. Consequently, as AJP becomes increasingly utilized in the high-volume manufacturing of miniaturized active and passive sensors, it opens a pathway for facile large-scale fabrication of devices for a wide range of consumer and industrial applications, including transportation, agriculture, infrastructure, aerospace, national defense, and healthcare.