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Skyshine Calculations for a Large Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility with SCALE 6.2.3...

by Georgeta Radulescu, Kaushik Banerjee, Thomas M Miller, Douglas E Peplow
Publication Type
Journal Name
Nuclear Technology
Publication Date
Page Numbers
1768 to 1783

The SCALE code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory includes state-of-the-art capabilities for radiation source term and radiation transport simulations that can be used in numerous applications, including dose rate analyses of complex consolidated interim storage facilities (CISFs). A licensed CISF could be used to store tens of thousands of tonnes of spent nuclear fuel discharged from commercial power reactors using various cask and storage pad designs. A CISF design must comply with the regulatory requirements provided in 10 CFR Part 72, including requirements related to annual dose limits applicable to real individuals located beyond the area controlled by the licensee. Therefore, calculating a dose to the public is a necessary part of the licensing process for the construction of a CISF. These calculations are very challenging because of the complexity of the CISF design and the low magnitude of dose rate at large distances from the facility. This paper describes detailed far-field dose rate calculations performed for a proposed CISF using MAVRIC, the Monte Carlo radiation shielding sequence in SCALE 6.2.3, with automated variance reduction based on discrete ordinates calculations. The method presented in this paper uses a detailed Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation in one step from source to dose rate. A series of independent simulations was made using the complete site geometry (all casks present), but with only one cask containing radiation sources to obtain the dose rate maps produced by each storage cask. The CISF dose rate map was obtained by adding the dose rate maps produced by the independent individual cask simulations. Ample volumes of air and soil extending beyond the location of interest for dose rate calculation were included in the calculation model to properly simulate important radiation attenuation and scattering events that affect far-field dose rates. A comprehensive sensitivity study is included in this paper to illustrate the importance of selecting appropriate air volume, mass density, and composition for CISF skyshine dose rate calculations. Dry soil and soil containing water were analyzed to determine their effects on groundshine radiation.