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Oxidation Behavior of Candidate NiCr Alloys for Engine Exhaust Valves: Part I—Effect of Minor Alloying Elements...

by Rishi R Pillai, Marie Romedenne, James A Haynes, Bruce A Pint
Publication Type
Journal
Journal Name
Oxidation of Metals
Publication Date
Page Numbers
157 to 187
Volume
95
Issue
1-2

Oxidation-induced degradation of structural materials employed as exhaust valves within internal combustion engines (ICEs) will be a relevant life-limiting mechanism, in addition to creep and mechanical fatigue, due to ever-increasing severity of operating temperatures and pressures. Ni–Cr-based alloys, which form external chromia-based scales at the relevant operating temperatures are being considered as suitable candidate materials. Thermal cycling of these alloys in water vapor-containing atmospheres, such as those present during hydrocarbon fuel combustion within ICEs, can considerably influence their oxidation behavior. In this study, the role of typical alloying additions such as Mn, Si, Al and Ti on the cyclic oxidation behavior of model NiCr–X (X = Mn,Si,Al,Ti) alloys exposed in dry air and air + 10% H2O at 800∘C and 950∘C was investigated. Combined additions of Mn and Si reduced scaling rates compared to binary Ni–22Cr alloys. The presence of water vapor possibly suppressed formation of NiMnCr spinel and thereby the Cr depletion in the alloy. Combined Al and Ti additions mainly resulted in accelerated oxidation kinetics due to the Ti doping of chromia scales. More porous external scales were observed in water vapor leading to a much deeper depth of nitridation in the Ni–22Cr–Al–Ti alloys.