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Operando Analysis of Gas Evolution in TiNb2O7 (TNO)-Based Anodes for Advanced High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries under Fast Charging

Publication Type
Journal Name
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Publication Date
Page Numbers
55145 to 55155

TiNb2O7 (TNO) is regarded as one of the promising next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high rate capabilities, higher theoretical capacity, and higher lithiation voltage. This enables the cycling of TNO-based anodes under extreme fast charging (XFC) conditions with a minimal risk of lithium plating compared to that of graphite anodes. Here, the gas evolution in real time with TNO-based pouch cells is first reported via operando mass spectrometry. The main gases are identified to be CO2, C2H4, and O2. A solid–electrolyte interphase is detected on TNO, which continues evolving, forming, and dissolving with the lithiation and delithiation of TNO. The gas evolution can be significantly reduced when a protective coating is applied on the TNO particles, reducing the CO2 and C2H4 evolution by ∼2 and 5 times, respectively, at 0.1C in a half-cell configuration. The reduction on gas generation in full cells is even more pronounced. The surface coating also enables 20% improvement in capacity under XFC conditions.