A strategy for determining the size polydispersity of systems from their small angle coherent scattering is outlined. Using the method of moment expansion, we show that the various central moments representing the average particle size, variance of particle size, and skewness of size distribution function (SDF) for polydisperse systems can be extracted from spectral analysis without bias. When the degree of polydispersity is moderate, SDF can be further reconstructed based on the maximum entropy principle. Numerical benchmarking of a model study over a wide range of size nonuniformity demonstrates the validity of this analytical approach for quantifying the size distribution of general soft matter systems in a model-free manner. Furthermore, the efficacy of this method was validated by successfully applying it to the fitting of small-angle neutron scattering data obtained from L64 Pluronic micelles using various form factor models. The numerical and experimental verification underscores the reliability and versatility of this method in accurately characterizing the size distribution of complex soft matter systems.