CO2 refrigeration systems have attracted more attentions in recent years because of their zero-carbon emission advantages compared with traditional refrigerants. These systems are widely used in certain commercial buildings such as supermarkets. However, very limited energy studies have been done for such refrigeration systems under faults. This study investigated five common faults for supermarket transcritical CO2 refrigeration systems with display cases. The following major tasks were implemented for this study. (1) Five fault models (gray-box format) regarding the power consumption and supply air temperature were proposed for low- and high-temperature display cases, respectively. The models cover: ice accumulation on evaporator coil, evaporator fan partial failure, expansion valve failure, display door open, and condenser blockage. (2) These fault models were calibrated with field tests, and the modeling accuracies were in good agreement with measurement datasets. (3) The proposed fault models demonstrated more than 90% of fault detection for Fault Detection and Diagnostics (FDD) purposes for both field measurement and simulated data.