A detailed survey of ice mold and evaporator metal surfaces, physical structures, operational conditions, materials of construction, design of different equipment was reviewed and analyzed1. A reliable test
methodology was developed to measure the ice adhesion strength of different materials and geometries identified. The developed test setup was successfully employed in measuring the ice adhesion strength on both tubular and planar substrate geometries of metals including copper, aluminum, stainless steel. Application of advanced polymer materials in lowering the adhesion strength of ice was confirmed where
the measured strength was lowered by 50-70% depending on the material and geometry. Additionally, utilization of induced ultrasonic vibration in further lowering the ice harvesting energy was confirmed on
multiple materials and geometries. Durability of the coating enhancement was also confirmed in a thermal cycling test under realistic operating conditions.