Skip to main content

Effect of Split-Injection Strategies on Engine Performance and Emissions under Cold-Start Operation...

by Gurneesh S Jatana, Flavio Dal Forno Chuahy, James P Szybist
Publication Type
Journal Name
SAE Technical Paper Series
Publication Date
Page Number

The recently concluded partnership for advancing combustion engines (PACE) was a US Department of Energy consortium involving multiple national laboratories focused on addressing key efficiency and emission barriers in light-duty engines. Generation of detailed experimental data and modeling capabilities to understand and predict cold-start behavior was a major pillar in this program. Cold-start, as defined by the time between first engine crank and three-way catalyst light-off, is responsible for a large percentage of NOx, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emissions in light-duty engines. Minimizing emissions during cold-start is a trade-off between achieving faster three-way catalyst light-off, and engine out emissions during that period. In this study, engine performance, emissions, and catalyst warmup potential were monitored while the engine was operated using a single direct injection (baseline case) as well as a two-way-equal-split direct injection strategy. These injection strategies were analyzed at a range of cold-start-operation relevant retarded spark timings of up to 25 degrees after top dead center of firing (dATDCf). A stoichiometric 2-bar NIMEP steady-state condition was used for all cases to simulate cold-start operation. Significant improvement in engine stability was observed with the two-way-split injection strategy at the retarded spark timings allowing for up to 2.5x increase in exhaust heat rate when engine operation is stability constrained. Similar fuel-loss-to-oil trends with exhaust heat rate were observed for both single and two-way-split injection strategies. However, the two-way split injection was observed to produce higher NOx emissions per unit exhaust heat rate. A single data point run with three-way-split direct injection at a very retarded spark-timing of 30 dATDCf pointed to further improvements in engine stability and reduction in fuel-loss-to-oil as compared to single injection strategy. Engine stability decreased as spark timing was initially retarded with a single injection but was observed to plateau and stabilize beyond spark timing of 10 dATDCf. For the two-way-split-injection strategy, retarding the start of injection (SOI) timing of the second injection led to a decrease in engine stability as well as an increase in soot emissions.