With the increasing concerns over climate change and carbon emissions, fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of low–global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant supermarket refrigeration systems has gained great attention from academic and industrial sectors. Various FDD approaches have been developed to detect, identify, and diagnose faults to save energy, improve food quality, and protect the environment. To mitigate the difficulty of collecting high-quality steady-state operational data in field operations faced by most model-based FDD methods, this study developed dynamic models of a low–GWP refrigerant (CO2) supermarket refrigeration system. The model accuracy was validated using manufacturer data and experimental data. Simulations were conducted to predict the system dynamic response under two common operational faults—evaporator air path blockage fault and the display case door open fault—to identify fault patterns and define key dynamic behavior indexes for supporting FDD algorithm development.