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Discovery of conjoined charge density waves in the kagome superconductor CsV3Sb5

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Nature Communications
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The electronic instabilities in CsV3Sb5 are believed to originate from the V 3d-electrons on the kagome plane, however the role of Sb 5p-electrons for 3-dimensional orders is largely unexplored. Here, using resonant tender X-ray scattering and high-pressure X-ray scattering, we report a rare realization of conjoined charge density waves (CDWs) in CsV3Sb5, where a 2 × 2 × 1 CDW in the kagome sublattice and a Sb 5p-electron assisted 2 × 2 × 2 CDW coexist. At ambient pressure, we discover a resonant enhancement on Sb L1-edge (2s→5p) at the 2 × 2 × 2 CDW wavevectors. The resonance, however, is absent at the 2 × 2 × 1 CDW wavevectors. Applying hydrostatic pressure, CDW transition temperatures are separated, where the 2 × 2 × 2 CDW emerges 4 K above the 2 × 2 × 1 CDW at 1 GPa. These observations demonstrate that symmetry-breaking phases in CsV3Sb5 go beyond the minimal framework of kagome electronic bands near van Hove filling.