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Alignment of Cellulose Nanofibers: Harnessing Nanoscale Properties to Macroscale Benefits...

Publication Type
Journal Name
ACS Nano
Publication Date
Page Numbers
3646 to 3673

In nature, cellulose nanofibers form hierarchical structures across multiple length scales to achieve high-performance properties and different functionalities. Cellulose nanofibers, which are separated from plants or synthesized biologically, are being extensively investigated and processed into different materials owing to their good properties. The alignment of cellulose nanofibers is reported to significantly influence the performance of cellulose nanofiber-based materials. The alignment of cellulose nanofibers can bridge the nanoscale and macroscale, bringing enhanced nanoscale properties to high-performance macroscale materials. However, compared with extensive reviews on the alignment of cellulose nanocrystals, reviews focusing on cellulose nanofibers are seldom reported, possibly because of the challenge of aligning cellulose nanofibers. In this review, the alignment of cellulose nanofibers, including cellulose nanofibrils and bacterial cellulose, is extensively discussed from different aspects of the driving force, evaluation, strategies, properties, and applications. Future perspectives on challenges and opportunities in cellulose nanofiber alignment are also briefly highlighted.