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Time series anomaly detection in power electronics signals with recurrent and ConvLSTM autoencoders...

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Digital Signal Processing
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The anomalies in the high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) remain a major down time for the spallation neutron source facility, that delivers the most intense neutron beam in the world for scientific materials research. In this work, we propose neural network architectures based on Recurrent AutoEncoders (RAE) to detect anomalies ahead of time in the power signals coming from the HVCM. Bi-directional gated recurrent unit, bi-directional long-short term memory (LSTM), and convolutional LSTM (ConvLSTM) are developed, trained, and tested using real experimental signals from the HVCM module. The results show a good performance of the proposed RAE models, achieving precision up to 91%, recall up to 88%, false omission rate as low as 20% (i.e. 80% of the anomalies were detected), and area under the ROC curve up to 0.9. The three RAE models provide very comparable performance, with LSTM showing slightly better performance than GRU and ConvLSTM. The RAE models are benchmarked against other anomaly detection methods, including isolation forest, support vector machine, local outlier factor, feedforward and convolutional autoencoders, and others; showing a better performance. The results of this study demonstrate the promising potential of RAE in anomaly detection for real-world power systems, and for increasing the reliability of the HVCM modules in the spallation neutron source.