The choice of weld parameters determines the size, shape, and curvature of grains in the fusion zone (FZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of welds while the mechanical properties of the welds are correlated to this microstructure. A new technique to quantitatively evaluate these microstructural characteristics in both zones of welds has been applied to molybdenum gas tungsten arc welds fabricated using different weld parameters. Trends in microstructural characteristics in the FZ and HAZ were evaluated and correlated with changes to heat input, weld speed, and weld technique. The use of this approach showed that a 20 pct decrease in heat input caused a 20 pct decrease in the number of FZ grains with aspect ratios ≥ 4. The orientations of the FZ grain segments as a function of distance from the FZ centerline were significantly affected by the weld speed and its effect on weld pool shape. A 50 pct increase in weld speed caused a 20 pct decrease in grain segments orientated 60 to 90 deg from the normal to the direction of welding. This technique also captured differences in grain sizes and grain size anisotropy in the FZ between welds made with a constant current, pulsed current, and use of a 4-pole-magnetic oscillator.