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Review of in situ process monitoring for metal hybrid directed energy deposition

Publication Type
Journal Name
Journal of Manufacturing Processes
Publication Date
Page Numbers
128 to 139

Hybrid manufacturing, or the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing within a single build volume is transforming the way products are being fabricated. Additive manufacturing confers unprecedented freedom of design and reduced material usage while enabling serial customization. Subtractive manufacturing provides superior surface finish and improved dimensional accuracies. Interwoven, these two digital manufacturing paradigms are enabling the rapid manufacturing of complex, highly accurate, and customized geometries in a diversity of high-performance alloys. In situ monitoring, heavily relied upon in either additive or subtractive, becomes even more crucial with the interplay of the two processes in a single combined build sequence. Moreover, challenges that do not exist in either process alone can now have a dramatic impact on final part quality: (1) a large amount of heat is generated during additive manufacturing deposition, which is primarily dissipated into the machine tooling and impacts accuracy by deforming the material and causing misaligned machining; (2) microstructure, mechanical properties, and residual stresses are the result of the complex thermal histories generated by additive manufacturing and can impact subsequent cutting performance. This comprehensive review considers previous research in monitoring and providing closed-loop control in both additive and subtractive manufacturing separately and then considers the implications of the effectiveness of these monitoring techniques when additive and subtractive processes are integrated together.