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Progress of Nanotechnology for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries...

by Mengya Li, Charl J Jafta, Ilias Belharouak
Publication Type
Book Chapter
Publication Date
Page Numbers
137 to 164
Publisher Name
Publisher Location
Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been proposed and investigated since the 1960s as an effective energy storage device via reversible electrochemical reactions. As the fast development and commercialization of Li-ion battery (LIB) technology kept moving forward, no breakthroughs have been attained to solve critical technical issues facing Li-S batteries during the following decades. In the year 2000s, Li-S batteries reattracted significant interests in the research field owing to their low-cost advantages, high theoretical specific energy of 2600 Wh kg− 1, which is at least 3 times higher than the current LIB technology. The low-cost and high abundance of sulfur (i.e., the cathode active material), make Li-S batteries more appealing than LIBs given the fact that the latter use critical materials such as cobalt and nickel in the manufacturing of the cathodes. Moreover, the high-energy and low-cost features make the Li-S battery a promising energy storage technology in practical applications such as portable devices, electric vehicles, and grid storage when coupled with the harvesting of solar or wind renewable energies. For example, since 2007, SION Power Corporation (Tucson, USA) and Oxis Energy (UK) made progress towards the commercialization of Li-S batteries with products showing specific energies over 350 Wh kg− 1 for powering electric vehicles. To be on a par with the current LIB technology, the ultimate goal of achieving 500 Wh kg− 1 for Li-S battery will make it more competitive for widespread commercialization.