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Optimizing workplace charging facility deployment and smart charging strategies...

by Shengyin Li, Fei Xie, Yongxi Huang, Zhenhong Lin, Changzheng Liu
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Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
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This study introduces a workplace charging (WPC) optimization model that maximizes the total satisfied electric miles of employees’ plug-in electric vehicles, subject to a given annual budget. The model optimizes both planning decisions of charger number and power levels and operation decisions of charging spot assignment and charging schedule for the given temporal distribution of charging demands and varied electricity prices. Results of experiments based on national average travel data indicate that the actual WPC strategy varies by budget level. Through optimization, the strategy could reduce impacts of the varied electricity price by shifting charging schedules to periods when electricity prices are low. Also, the model is expanded to study the trade-off between providing WPC and addressing consequence of degraded charging service by including the per-mile shadow cost of unsatisfied charging demand. We observe that their relative competitiveness mainly depends on the actual shadow cost of WPC.