Engineering neutron diffraction can nondestructively and noninvasively probe stress, strain, temperature, and phase evolutions deep within bulk materials. In this work, we demonstrate operando lattice strain measurement of internal combustion engine components by neutron diffraction. A modified commercial generator engine was mounted in the VULCAN diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, and the lattice strains in both the cylinder block and head were measured under static nonfiring conditions as well as steady state and cyclic transient operation. The dynamic temporal response of the lattice strain change during transient operation was resolved in two locations by asynchronous stroboscopic neutron diffraction. We demonstrated that operando neutron measurements can allow for understanding of how materials behave throughout operational engineering devices. This study opens a pathway for the industrial and academic communities to better understand the complexities of material behavior during the operation of internal combustion engines and other real-scale devices and systems and to leverage techniques developed here for future investigations of numerous new platforms and alloys.