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Modeling, testing, and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse on PV systems

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Solar Energy
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Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) poses a significant threat to the normal operation of power systems, especially with the increasing penetration of renewable energy. Without adequate protection, EMP can severely damage equipment or result in circuit breakdowns or short circuits. Solar photovoltaic (PV) facilities are particularly susceptible to EMP since PV systems are outdoors and exposed to EMP radiation. To assess and mitigate this threat, this paper summarizes various models and tests used to study the effects of EMP on PV systems, assesses the nature of the threat, and identifies measures to mitigate it. The paper provides a comprehensive review by categorizing analytical methods based on their pros and cons, introducing and describing EMP-related events, and providing a taxonomy of analytical methods for studying EMP. This paper compares the processes of modeling, testing, and mitigating EMP at both the component and system levels of PV systems. It also presents a case study that reveals the vulnerability of solar inverters to EMP using the pulse current injection method. Finally, the paper discusses some of the remaining challenges that should be considered in future solar PV system design and deployment.