While there are numerous performance metrics that have been developed for the evaluation of distracted driving prevention programs, there is little information on how to select them depending on the requirements and/or objectives of the study. This paper describes a systematic literature review that was conducted on the metrics for evaluating distracted driving countermeasures in order to bridge this research gap. A summary of the evaluation metrics used for the existing distracted driving countermeasures was provided. Guidance for choosing an evaluation measure was provided by analyzing the metrics from the perspectives of functionality, spatial-temporal dimension, and equity. Three examples of distracted driving countermeasure evaluation processes were thoroughly reviewed in order to offer insight into metric selection and measurement. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by discussing the implications for policy on how to enhance the thoroughness and accuracy of the evaluation of distracted driving countermeasures. Analysis from multiple angles, the development of data collection tools and direct behavior indicators, taking into account temporal dimensions, and equity considerations, are proposed.