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Exploring Physics of Ferroelectric Domain Walls in Real Time: Deep Learning Enabled Scanning Probe Microscopy...

by Yongtao Liu, Kyle P Kelley, Hiroshi Funakubo, Sergei Kalinin, Maxim A Ziatdinov
Publication Type
Journal Name
Advanced Science
Publication Date
Page Number
Early View
Early View

The functionality of ferroelastic domain walls in ferroelectric materials is explored in real-time via the in situ implementation of computer vision algorithms in scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiment. The robust deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) is implemented based on a deep residual learning framework (Res) and holistically nested edge detection (Hed), and ensembled to minimize the out-of-distribution drift effects. The DCNN is implemented for real-time operations on SPM, converting the data stream into the semantically segmented image of domain walls and the corresponding uncertainty. Further the pre-defined experimental workflows perform piezoresponse spectroscopy measurement on thus discovered domain walls, and alternating high- and low-polarization dynamic (out-of-plane) ferroelastic domain walls in a PbTiO3 (PTO) thin film and high polarization dynamic (out-of-plane) at short ferroelastic walls (compared with long ferroelastic walls) in a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film is reported. This work establishes the framework for real-time DCNN analysis of data streams in scanning probe and other microscopies and highlights the role of out-of-distribution effects and strategies to ameliorate them in real time analytics.