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Enabling Sustainable Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing via Recycling...

by Yaocai Bai, Nitin Muralidharan, Jagjit Nanda, Ilias Belharouak
Publication Type
Book Chapter
Publication Date
Page Numbers
551 to 565
Publisher Name
American Chemical Society
Publisher Location
Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America

With millions of electric vehicles set to hit the road, challenges arise with both the access to a reliable supply of critical raw materials and management of spent Li-ion batteries that once powered those vehicles. From a circular economy perspective, it is critical to develop cost-effective and environmentally sustainable recycling technologies to manage end-of-life batteries and reintroduce the recovered materials into the supply chain to maintain a secure and healthy battery ecosystem. In this chapter, an overview of the current state of battery recycling is discussed by analyzing recycling’s benefits, key issues, and recycling strategies including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and direct recycling. We also compare those recycling processes and highlight the direct recycling strategy by analyzing its benefits, working principles, and challenges. Direct recycling is still in the development stage and some recent advancements are discussed.