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Effects of lead and lean in multi-axis directed energy deposition...

Publication Type
Journal Name
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Publication Date
Page Numbers
1 to 16

The present study examines the effect of varying laser incidence angles on textural, microstructural, and geometric characteristics of directed energy deposition (DED) processed materials, providing a more comprehensive outlook on participating laser-matter interaction phenomena and ultimately devising strategies to ameliorate print performance. In this study, single-layer, single-/multi-track specimens were processed to examine the effect of non-orthogonal angular configurations on bead morphology, microstructure, phase composition, and textural representation of DED-processed 316L stainless steel materials. It was observed that bead size decreased at increasing lead and lean angles. Asymmetry in the distribution of the bead morphology as a function of lead angle indicates better catchment for acute lead angle configurations over obtuse configurations. No significant differences in phase composition, texture, and microstructure were observed in moderate off-axis configurations. When the penetration depth for the deposits was below 20 μm, columnar structures dominated the microstructure of the deposited material. At deeper penetration depths, columnar and equiaxed structures were observed at the bead-substrate interface and center of the bead, respectively. Compared to powder-blown DED, wire-DED dilution profiles were found to be asymmetric in both orthogonal and non-orthogonal wire DED samples.