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Distributed Energy Management for Networked Microgrids with Hardware-in-the-Loop Validation

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For the cooperative operation of networked microgrids, a distributed energy management considering network operational objectives and constraints is proposed in this work. Considering various ownership and privacy requirements of microgrids, utility directly interfaced distributed energy resources (DERs) and demand response, a distributed optimization is proposed for obtaining optimal network operational objectives with constraints satisfied through iteratively updated price signals. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm is utilized to solve the formulated distributed optimization. The proposed distributed energy management provides microgrids, utility-directly interfaced DERs and responsive demands the opportunity of contributing to better network operational objectives while preserving their privacy and autonomy. Results of numerical simulation using a networked microgrids system consisting of several microgrids, utility directly interfaced DERs and responsive demands validate the soundness and accuracy of the proposed distributed energy management. The proposed method is further tested on a practical two-microgrid system located in Adjuntas, Puerto Rico, and the applicability of the proposed strategy is validated through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing.