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Chelating Rare-Earth Metals (Ln3+) and 225Ac3+ with the Dual-Size-Selective Macrocyclic Ligand Py2-Macrodipa...

by Aohan Hu, Megan E Simms, Vilmos Kertesz, Justin Wilson, Nikki A Thiele
Publication Type
Journal Name
Inorganic Chemistry
Publication Date
Page Numbers
12847 to 12855

Radioisotopes of metallic elements, or radiometals, are widely employed in both therapeutic and diagnostic nuclear medicine. For this application, chelators that efficiently bind the radiometal of interest and form a stable metal–ligand complex with it are required. Toward the development of new chelators for nuclear medicine, we recently reported a novel class of 18-membered macrocyclic chelators that is characterized by their ability to form stable complexes with both large and small rare-earth metals (Ln3+), a property referred to as dual size selectivity. A specific chelator in this class called py-macrodipa, which contains one pyridyl group within its macrocyclic core, was established as a promising candidate for 135La3+, 213Bi3+, and 44Sc3+ chelation. Building upon this prior work, here we report the synthesis and characterization of a new chelator called py2-macrodipa with two pyridyl units fused into the macrocyclic backbone. Its coordination chemistry with the Ln3+ series was investigated by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, density functional theory (DFT) calculations, analytical titrations, and transchelation assays. These studies reveal that py2-macrodipa retains the expected dual size selectivity and possesses an enhanced thermodynamic affinity for all Ln3+ compared to py-macrodipa. By contrast, the kinetic stability of Ln3+ complexes with py2-macrodipa is only improved for the light, large Ln3+ ions. Based upon these observations, we further assessed the suitability of py2-macrodipa for use with 225Ac3+, a large radiometal with valuable properties for targeted α therapy. Radiolabeling and stability studies revealed py2-macrodipa to efficiently incorporate 225Ac3+ and to form a complex that is inert in human serum over 3 weeks. Although py2-macrodipa does not surpass the state-of-the-art chelator macropa for 225Ac3+ chelation, it does provide another effective 225Ac3+ chelator. These studies shed light on the fundamental coordination chemistry of the Ln3+ series and may inspire future chelator design efforts.