For environmental-effects research related to energy technologies and their use, focusing on the impacts of climate and atmospheric changes on the physiology, growth, and biogeochemical cycles of North American forest ecosystems.
For pioneering research and development of new materials for advanced energy technologies, including materials for (a) the storage of nuclear waste, (b) the solid-state generation of electrical power directly from heat, and (c) the lossless transport of electricity.
For basic studies in the fracture of and toughening mechanisms in ceramics and ceramic composites, in the establishment of the relationships between microstructure and composition and mechanical behavior, and in the development of advanced ceramic materials.
For contributions to advanced control systems for nuclear reactor, including development of control-system and plant protection technologies that permit automated start-up and operation; and to analysis techniques that have led to better understanding of reactor dynamics.
For contributions to understanding plasma turbulence and the nonlinear properties of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, especially their role in explaining the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas, and for development of new magnetic confinement concepts that overcome these limitations.
For theoretical research on the electronic and vibronic structures and optical properties of defects in ionic crystals, and for work at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of laser annealing of semiconductors, leading to advances in the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy.
For advances in neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry, the transport of electricity through gases, and the development of laser-based one-atom detection with applications in nuclear physics, solar neutrino research, and oceanic, geologic, and environmental research
For research on the processes involved in the induction of mutations, elucidating the roles and sequences of DNA repair and replication in converting radiation or chemical damage into mutations, and for contributions to the understanding of biological control mechanisms at the cellular level