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In-situ Digital Image Correlation and thermal monitoring in Directed Energy Deposition Additive Manufacturing...

by James C Haley, Samuel C Leach, Brian H Jordan, Ryan R Dehoff, Vincent C Paquit
Publication Type
Journal Name
Optics Express
Publication Date
Page Numbers
9927 to 9941

As in welding, directed energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing (AM) generates complex residual stresses and distortions commensurate with the complexity of the scan pattern used for deposition. To date, measuring DED distortions on complex geometries has only been achieved post process, discarding the complex thermomechanical history that leads to that final material state. In this work, surround stereo digital image correlation (DIC) is used to 3D map surfaces and strain tensors in-situ in a powder-blown laser DED system. Infrared thermography is then projected onto these surfaces to record the full thermomechanical history of printed parts. DIC presents a unique challenge to DED AM, as no part exists at the beginning of deposition, which (a) prevents application of an appropriate speckle pattern and (b) denies the user a zero strain reference frame. Solutions to these problems are proposed and their limitations explored herein. In sum, this work presents a relatively low-cost solution to monitoring and optimizing the unique temporal artifacts induced by complex scan strategies that was previously unobtainable.