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Simulation of Liquid Lithium Divertor Geometry Using SOLPS-ITER...

Publication Type
Journal Name
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
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Page Numbers
1 to 7

Plasma-facing component (PFC) geometries are evaluated for a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) design to find solutions that are compatible with flowing liquid lithium components while satisfying requirements from the perspective of plasma and neutral particle transport. Flowing liquid metal (LM) divertor systems offer important advantages due to continual regeneration of the surface material, but may require modifications from standard optimized tokamak divertor designs. Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulator for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (SOLPS-ITER) simulations are used to compare standard vertical target, open, and balanced baffled geometries. It is found that the open geometry offers little control of neutral particles and has narrow operating windows where the divertor fluxes can be lowered to acceptable levels, while maintaining the required upstream density. The addition of neutral baffles allows greater control over the divertor conditions with less impact on the upstream density. The divertor neutral pressure in the baffled geometry is slightly higher than the open divertor, but not as large with a vertical target. A first-pass coupling of the SOLPS solution with sheath and implantation/erosion models to compute the lithium emission shows that the lithium is largely confined to the near-surface region due to the small ionization mean free path and large main ion flow toward the surface. The lithium source was varied by three orders of magnitude. At the highest rate, when the sourced lithium approaches the level of the main ion recycling flux, a high core lithium concentration (~10%) is observed with only moderate power dissipation to affect the divertor plasma.