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An OpenMP GPU-offload implementation of a non-equilibrium solidification cellular automata model for additive manufacturing...

by Adrian Sabau, Yuan Lang, Jean-luc Fattebert, John A Turner
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Computer Physics Communications
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In this paper, performance strategies on GPU-based HPC platforms of a cellular automata (CA) simulation code for non-equilibrium solidification, including nucleation, grain growth, solute partitioning and transport for the metal additive manufacturing (AM) process are investigated using OpenMP 4.5. To accurately report the speed-up for multicore CPUs and GPUs, a rigorous performance analysis employed optimizations appropriate for both CPU-only code (baseline) and GPU offload codes for an isothermal test problem. The performance results on Summit at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility indicate that using a precomputed list of interface cells significantly decreased the wall-clock time on GPUs. The speedup due to GPU acceleration was evaluated for a full Summit node and measured to be 1.8X when comparing a 6 MPI tasks run with 6 GPUs versus 36 MPI tasks on the CPU only. That speed-up was found to be 7.9X when comparing 6 MPI tasks with 6 GPUs versus the 6 MPI tasks running on the CPU only. Performance measurements showed that system total time is almost constant for runs with more than 96 MPI tasks (or GPUs), indicating that the GPU-accelerated code showed an excellent weak scaling performance.

Finally, a rapid directional solidification problem was considered to demonstrate the CA code capability on Summit. It was found that a mesh size of at least 0.05 μm is recommended for the AM-like simulations in order to obtain accurate elongated grain microstructure and elongated subgrain features, which are in qualitative good agreement with experimental data. The results presented in this study indicate that the performance strategies on GPU-based HPC platforms for the CA code are appropriate for novel HPC exascale platforms.